Since ancient times, Iranians have been drawn to creating gardens and orchards. Around 3,000 years ago, Persian garden homes known as “Pere Dese,” which means “around the citadel,” were mentioned in Greek sources. The Persian garden is renowned for serving as a bridge between the realms of matter and meaning and as an embodiment of the highest ideals and notions.

The four sacred elements of water, wind, fire, and soil are thought to form the foundation of the philosophical design philosophy of Persian gardens. The topic of Persian gardens and nine of Iran’s most well-known ones are covered in this article.

Persian Garden History

Persian gardens have their origins in the sixth century BC, when Cyrus The Great, who ruled over a vast area, decided on the design of the ancient Pasargadae garden and ordered that it be built there (close to Shiraz province).

In actuality, Cyrus’ ideas are what gave rise to the Persian garden design, its intricate construction, and the inclusion of natural materials. The Persian garden was designed to promote both physical and spiritual tranquility. Therefore, it is true that the concept of an earthly paradise became a reality during the Achaemenid Empire.

Persian garden, one of the Persian Arts that Influenced Countries around the World


A distinctive garden design that has influenced India from the West, particularly Spain, is the Persian Garden. In contrast to other designs of European or Japanese Gardens, the basic principle of an Iranian Garden is the construction of paradise in the desolate Iranian Plateau, much like a thriving oasis in the desert.

On a Moorish palace scale, the gardens of the Alhambra from the al-Andalus era in Spain demonstrate the influence of Persian garden philosophy and style. Some of the largest Persian gardens in the world, which date back to the Mughal Empire in India, may be found at Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal.

The Old Days of Persian Gardens

The gardens that the Sassanids built in Persia were influenced by Zoroastrianism. The value of water flowing through the yard was more stressed, and the four-quarters of the garden were thought to represent the four seasons of the year. The Sassanid era is also when a Persian garden was first depicted in writing.

One of the first examples of engraved art that illustrates the Persian garden’s geometry is the hunt garden of Khosrow Parviz, the Sassanid dynasty’s king, in the Taq-e Bostan bas-relief. Gardens underwent a major aesthetic upgrade throughout the Islamic era.

Persian Garden Features


Not only are Persian gardens distinctive due to their architecture, geometry, and design. The Iranian garden is significantly enhanced by symbolism. A wonderful depiction of symbolic and physical beliefs, the garden combines natural and manmade components.

Each component of the garden has a different interpretation, but most people concur that it symbolizes a paradise on earth. In addition, the water denotes men’s and women’s purity, the evergreen trees, particularly cypress trees, signify immortality, and the four sections known as Chahar Bagh (four gardens) symbolize the universe whose architect is God. They are priceless not only for their symbolic meaning but also for their practicality.

An Inspiration for Persian Arts

The concept of the Persian garden has impacted the design, decoration, and description of other works of art, including Persian carpets, ceramics, calligraphy, music, and poetry because Iranians value art in a variety of forms. Persian carpets are a fantastic example of Persian gardens among all of these.

It might be more accurate to describe the carpet as a flat Persian garden with trees, flowers, and birds since many carpet designs are inspired by the Persian garden.

Ancient Persian Gardens


Since Pasargadae’s creation in the sixth century BC, a lot of time has passed. However, the mathematical and architectural elements of the Persian garden have been preserved. It has also spread to other nations, including Andalusia in Spain and Agra in India.

Furthermore, the Persian gardens listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites include Pasargadae Garden, Chehel Sotoun, Eram Garden, Fin Garden, Dowlatabad Garden, Shazdeh Garden, Abbasabad Garden, Akbarieh Garden, and Pahlevanpour Garden. These gardens draw tourists to Iran due to their preserved designs and beautiful scenery. The word “paradise,” which comes from the old Persian word “Pardeiza,” which means “a wall around,” describes a closed-off area.

Where are Persian gardens located in Iran?

The Persian Garden is made up of nine gardens that were chosen from different parts of Iran and that vividly depict the numerous configurations that this style of designed garden has taken over the years and under various climatic circumstances.

Here are some amazing Persian gardens:

1. Pasargadae Persian Garden


The Pasargadae garden, which has a long history, is regarded as the oldest and earliest garden ever planned in human history. Cyrus the Great mandated the establishment of this garden. It was built in a 249-hectare area to the north of Shiraz as the first prototype for Persian gardens.

The architect divided it into four divisions from a planning perspective, with “water” serving as the key component in architectural projection and arrays. In fact, this garden has the four main components of Zoroastrian belief: earth, water, air, and light.

2.Eram Persian Garden Shiraz

The Seljuk-era city of Shiraz and the province of Fars contain the Eram Garden. The architecture at Eram Garden is modeled after the Qajar era and incorporates Zand era fashions.

Due to its plasterworks, tile works, architecture, and striking paintings, this world heritage site is a one-of-a-kind masterpiece. Persepolis served as inspiration for the construction of the columns on the higher floors. On either side of the façade’s peak are two crescent-shaped parts, and in the center is a big piece with magnificent illustrations from the Shahnameh.

3. Fin Persian Garden Kashan


One of the most well-known and stunning gardens, Fin Garden is regarded as a full illustration of Persian Gardens. Royal guests flocked to Kashan‘s Fin neighborhood because it had a refreshing spring. Fin Garden was originally built during the Safavid Dynasty, although several structures were later constructed in the center area over various eras.

The design of Fin Garden heavily emphasizes water. The many gutters and ponds improve the landscape and its perspective. Watching fountains spray water in the center of a pool in a landscaped yard is incredibly wonderful. Tile in a turquoise blue color adorns the pools, giving them a stunning appearance. Interior portions were also embellished with beautiful tile designs, which beautifully doubled the splendor of Fin Garden.

4. Dowlat-Abad Persian Garden Yazd


After Nader Shah’s death, Mohammad Taghi Khan Bafqi, who was in control of Yazd, built the garden in 1747. Afsharid Dynasty saw the construction of Dowlat Abad Garden. This expansive garden, which has several structures, ponds, fountains, and trees, makes a great setting for an enjoyable evening gathering.

The highest adobe wind catcher in the world is housed in the Badgir Estate; a visit to the mansion and its wind catcher is enjoyable. One of the key areas of this garden is called Hashti Mansion; here, an impressive fusion of water and air movement can be seen. UNESCO listed the complex of Persian Gardens as a world historic monument because of how magnificent the entire building is.

5. Shazdeh Persian Garden Mahan


In the province of Kerman, 6 kilometers from the town of Mahan lies the Mahan Shahzadeh Gardens, often known as “the gardens of Mahan’s Prince.” They are surrounded by walls and have a rectangular form that spans more than five hectares. On the side opposite them, in a higher location, was a house, and access to them was by a gate in the lower portion. Because of the natural inclination of the land, the park was ornamented with fountains that were always flowing with water. The Qajar dynasty’s prince Mohammad Hasan Khan, as the name implies had these gardens constructed in 1850; subsequent kings later expanded them.

6. Abbas Abad Persian Garden Behshahr


In the northern Iranian hamlet of Altappeh lies the Abbas Abad Gardens. They were constructed about 1613, during the reign of Shah Abbas I, and they have Safavid-era architectural features. The Safavid kings like to stay in these gardens because of their magnificence, which includes fountains, canals, ponds, and numerous trees. The park was abandoned beginning in the late 17th century and wasn’t found again until 1967; it is now a Unesco World Heritage Site and the focus of excavations.

7. Chehel Sotoun Persian Garden Isfahan

Another of Iran’s greatest Persian gardens, Chehel Sotoun Palace, can be found not far from Isfahan‘s magnificent Naqsh-e Jahan Square. The Persian name for this ancient location is 40-column palace. In actuality, the portico has 20 columns. There are 40 columns there in addition to the reflection of these 20 in the water of its pool. Shah Abbas II constructed it on a 67 000 square meter plot of land. The centerpiece of the garden layout is the home in the center of it.

This mansion has a mirror hall, two eyvans on either side, two big northern and southern halls, an outdoor 20-column hall, a large pool in front of the structure, and a smaller one in the back. Beautiful paintings that depict the royal way of life, important occasions, and everyday life of the populace adorn the walls and ceilings within.

8. Akbarieh Persian Garden Birjand

It has 45000 square meters in size, was built during the Zand and Qajar dynasties, and is situated on a mountainside. There are a few buildings there, the “Heshmat Ol-Molk” building being the oldest.

This two-story building’s architect added stained glass accents, wood latticework, and word-carved embellishments (Monabat) to beautify it. At this structure, one can also witness lovely Eslimi (Arabesque) and geometric stucco motifs.

9. Pahlavanpour Persian Garden Mehriz/Yazd

The approximately 5-hectare Pahlavanpur Garden, which was established by a trader by the name of Pahlavanpur during the Qajar era, is situated in the province of Yazd and the city of Mehriz.

This garden receives its running water from the “Hasanabad” aqueduct, which does not directly flow through any other gardens in the area. An entrance building, Gelin Tower, pavilion building, Zemestankhaneh (winter house), stables, carpet weaving and spinning workshop and storage are among the structures in Pahlavanpur Garden.

The two-and-a-half-story pavilion structure in the middle of the garden, which has a special beauty from the water flowing through it, is constructed.

What is Garden Called in Persian?

In the Persian language, “Bagh” means garden.

What Three Things Distinguish the Persian Garden From Any Other?

Persian gardens contain unique qualities that set them apart from other gardens, including natural elements, summerhouses or interior chambers and halls, walls around the gardens, water streams, and distinctive geometric art.

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